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Process Modelling and Simulation

Numerical modelling can save significant time and cost at the design stage (Finite Element Analysis), as part of process acquisition, and through to assessing in-service performance (including fatigue modelling). TWI uses welding simulations as virtual tools to help understand how different processing conditions can influence the performance of welded fabrications.

TWI’s modelling capability extends from traditional joining processessuch as arc-welding, to  additive manufacture and non-destructive test techniques (e.g. guided-waves), in addition to the prediction of microstructures and residual stress and distortion.

TWI’s expertise lies in its breadth of experience in applying and validating welding and joining simulations covering most metal alloys (and non-metallics) and industrial applications. By identifying the most suitable modelling approach, TWI can deliver effective and reliable solutions to meet our customer requirements. Examples of previous work on manufacturing process simulations include:

  • Minimising the distortion of a complex, lightweight ship panel containing over 150 different welds by optimising weld sequence
  • Simulating the electron beam welding of thick section pressure vessels to understand residual stresses and their influence on defect tolerance
  • Modelling friction stir welding using techniques such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or so-called Eulerian techniques
  • Predicting residual stresses and distortion in additively manufactured (AM) parts made out of Ti-, Al- and Ni-base alloys. TWI’s expertise is AM process simulations is internationally recognised.
  • Analysing the influence of global and local post-weld heat treatment to quantify stress relaxation

TWI’s modelling staff are actively engaged in the development of codes, standards and industry best practice for weld modelling. This includes participation on and contribution to the UK Nuclear Standard R6 Weld Modelling Guidelines subgroup; British Standard 7910 subgroup on Welding Residual Stress; NAFEMS Manufacturing Process Simulation Working Group; and the ISO/TS 18166 Numerical Welding Simulation technical document.

For more information. please email

For more information please email: